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Social Sciences Research Institute

  • Development through research.

    We execute about 80 research projects annually, funded partly by the State and partly by contracts with other organizations or institutions.

Will the gender pay gap persist in advanced societies?

Objavljeno: 27 Mar, 2023

A study led by the University of California, joined by the University of Ljubljana’s Faculty of Social Sciences (UL FDV), found that pay practices and barriers to promotion are to blame for women earning less than men in the 15 countries analysed. The findings show how new policies could address such problems.

Despite progress in gender equality, women still earn less than men, even in advanced societies. According to an analysis of 15 countries, the reasons for this are structural (in the workplace) and linked to the personal choices of men and women who choose differently paid jobs. The findings, published in the scientific journal Nature Human Behaviour, support the need for action to tackle the gap, focusing on equal pay for equal work and the removal of gender barriers to recruitment and promotion.

After taking into account differences in age, education and full- or part-time work, the researchers found that the gender gap in earnings between people aged 30 to 55 ranged from 10% in Hungary to 41% in South Korea. In Slovenia, the difference is (was*) 19%. 

The gender pay gap in Slovenia has widened over the ten years, not only due to processes sorting people into different jobs, but also due to an increase in the gender gap within the same jobs. This means there are differences not only between different employers, but also within the same employer for the same jobs. The researchers for Slovenia were Prof. Dr. Aleksandra Kanjuo Mrčela (UL FDV) and mag. Andreja Poje, a doctoral student in Humanities and Social Sciences at the University of Ljubljana.

In December 2022, the Centre for Organisational and Human Resources Research (UL FDV) launched the STEP project. Its main aim is to increase pay transparency and reduce the gender pay gap in Slovenia. The project will analyse the obstacles and opportunities for systemic changes to increase pay transparency, review the practices of EU countries that are leading the way in this area, and prepare a proposal and action plan for the implementation of the Pay Transparency Directive in Slovenia.

Ensuring gender equality is Goal 5 of the 2030 Agenda for Sustainable Development.

More about the research results (Within-job gender pay inequality in 15 countries) is available on this link.

* The data cover a period of 10 years, from 2005 to 2015 for Slovenia.


The Social Sciences Research Institute is the largest research institute for Social Sciences in Slovenia. Research at the Institute is carried out within the framework of national and international research programmes. Intensive research is carried out within European Union research projects, but researchers and research centres are also involved in other international research.  

VICE-DEAN for Research: dr. Andreja Jaklič.


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